Marketing is much more than generating eye-catching content and using engaging advertisements. One of the sole aspects of marketing is understanding consumer behaviour to offer products according to their tastes and preferences. 

What is Consumer Behaviour in Marketing?

Consumer behaviour, by definition, is the study of customers, their likes, dislikes, and their trends in purchasing specific products and services. It is about understanding what they are likely to buy, why, and when. Knowing consumer behaviour meaning and studying it has become even more critical in the last few years, helping companies devise marketing campaigns.

For instance, if you sell commodities of a higher price amongst customers with a lower per capita income, your products are likely to fail, and you would earn no profits. Or suppose you sell an item that is against the general purchase trends of the customers. Your articles/products would not sell well. Thus, studying consumer behaviour helps select your target customers and alter your products according to their needs and choices.

consumer behaviour in marketing

Why is Consumer Behaviour Important?

Importance of consumer behaviour in marketing

There are several benefits of studying the scope of consumer behaviour. While on the one hand, consumer behaviour can help you implement specific field marketing strategies for your customer base. It also enables you to trace the prevalent trends in the market: this, in turn, helps you understand the kinds of products and services you can sell to maximize your profits. The characteristics of consumer behaviour is also crucial to trace the mode of purchase amongst your customers.

Do they visit the stores? Or do they purchase most things online? For instance, if you are running a retail store and typically your customers buy products online, you can orient your marketing strategy to tackle this facet and enable the customers to visit the store. In such a scenario, the importance of understanding consumer behaviour cannot be overstated.

If you have enabled the customers to visit the store, it is crucial to deploy relevant retail merchandising strategies to engage them. Assessing the factors influencing customer behaviour is also pivotal in designing the store and orienting merchandise to suit their preferences and purchasing decisions. Thus, consumer behaviour helps you develop a rich insight into their tastes and preferences and understand strategies to maximize sales.

What are the 4 Types of Customer Buying Behavior?

  • Complex Buying Behavior

Complex buying behavior is a phenomenon where customers end up purchasing expensive goods from different brands. They conduct extensive research and concentrate on their buying process and experience. However, such behavior is also called Complex behavior because they have no specific buying trend. Examples of this behavior include buying real estate properties, etc.

  • Dissonance-reducing Buying Behavior

Dissonance-reducing behavior is a trait where customers find it challenging to differentiate between brands. The confusion in customers is called ‘dissonance.’ For instance, a customer might buy a computer and think the other brand would have been better. Thus, they seek validation to ensure they choose the right brand. Such a habit helps customers overcome their confusion too.

  • Habitual Buying Behavior

Habitual buying behavior is when customers buy products out of habit or everyday need. Customers are not concerned about the brand or exhibit brand loyalty in such a buying behavior. Instead, they purchase items because they need them daily. For instance, they are buying milk or groceries. In such cases, the customers buy the same product because of its utility and seldom purchase them because they prefer a specific brand.

  • Variety Seeking Behavior

As the name suggests, variety-seeking behavior is a phenomenon where customers buy alternative products just to try them out. For instance, one might purchase various brands of shower gels just to check out the variety. Such brand changes do not mean the customer thinks the previous products were not up to the mark. Instead, they change these items just to try out something different.

Three Factors of Consumer Behaviour:

Factors of Consumer Behaviour

There are three factors affecting consumer behaviour in marketing and determining the extent of product sales. These factors include the following:

  • Psychological Behaviour:

Psychological factors are the customers’ beliefs, perspectives, and thought processes. Customers are more likely to buy products whose message coincides with their ideologies. This inclusivity is one of the sole factors for the growing popularity of companies that adopt a sustainable business approach. Customers are increasingly becoming more aware and concerned about environmental factors and realize the need to protect the environment and prevent global warming. As a result, they are likely to buy products from companies that implement sustainable practices into business operations that include environment-friendly modes of production and much more. 

  • Personal Behaviour:

Personal factors include the unique tastes and preferences of the customers and their choice of purchasing a specific product. These personal factors aren’t similar to other groups and communities. Instead, they are inherent within the individuals. These factors include the personal reasons behind buying a specific product. It would help if you remembered that the personal factors do not influence any other group or individual. These factors define particular and unique consumption patterns and purchasing trends. For instance, an aged customer would prefer buying specific products over the youngsters. Thus, if you sell fast food items, the younger generations are most likely to be your target customers, whereas the aged customers are likely to buy health products, food supplements, etc.

  • Social Behaviour:

Social factors are the ones that are entirely developed in association with other groups, communities, or individuals. These factors are not inherent in an individual. Instead, they are imposed upon or reinforced into the customer. These tastes and preferences emerge as a result of interactions with other groups of people. For instance, children visiting a school are more likely to buy attractive stationery, a young adult may buy gym equipment or sports shoes, and so on. 

What are the Characteristics of Consumer Behavior?

These are the following characteristics of consumer behavior:

  • Consumer behavior depends on products, ideas, and activities
  • Consumer behavior can change from time to time and is dynamic
  • Consumer behavior is not just about buying. Instead, it is about their tastes, beliefs, etc.
  • Consumer behavior is framed through interaction amongst various consumers, indicating an exchange of ideas.

Key Insights:

Role of Consumer Behaviour

Consumer behaviour plays a crucial role in merchandising. The amount of money a customer is willing to spend on a product also depends on their behaviour. It is these factors that determine your target customer base. Which customer base is ready to buy your products at a specific price? As a result, the nature of consumer behaviour plays a crucial role in determining marketing strategies. For instance, if you find your customers are unwilling to pay the price you fixed for your products, reducing it can cause a sudden increase in your customer base.

Consumer Behaviour Model

Remember that analysing consumer behaviour models is critical to offering products tailored to their interests and preferences. It is vital to match marketing techniques to client behaviour to reap maximum benefits from your marketing activities. Marketing your products can be expensive, so make the most of every action undertaken. Thus, it would be best to study consumer behaviour models before selecting a suitable market trend.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do you mean by consumer behavior?

Consumer behavior is the in-depth study of the psychological factors involved in consumer buying processes. It studies the attitudes, beliefs, and other behavioral factors determining a consumer's purchasing trend. Consumer behavior is influenced by several internal and external factors that play a crucial role in deciding the brands or products consumers purchase. Consumer behavior also plays a vital role in framing the marketing policies of various brands.

What is an example of consumer behavior?

Consumer behavior implies the set of attitudes and beliefs which influence a consumers purchasing decisions. For instance, a consumer buying a television of a particular brand instead of the rest might depend on various factors. These may include the consumer's brand loyalty, their ethical considerations, or their belief that the brand prioritizes consumer needs and requirements.

How do you identify consumer Behavior?

Identifying various kinds of consumer behavior can have multiple tools and strategies. In general, one can identify consumer behavior by understanding the attitudes and beliefs of consumers and studying the time spent on each product or brand, along with understanding the reasons. One can also get a fair idea of consumer behavior by analyzing the frequency of a similar purchase pattern exhibited by consumers.

What affects consumer behavior?

The following factors influence consumer behavior:

  • Social factors: Factors that determine whether a brand or product finds popularity within a specific society.
  • Cultural factors: Cultural factors imply shaping consumer behavior based on their cultural values, beliefs, and traditions.
  • Personal factors- Personal beliefs play a crucial role in determining whether consumers find their purchase personally beneficial.
  • Psychological factors: These might include the ethical considerations of the consumers.